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In addition to the Green Book, Muammar Al Gaddafi is the author of a 1996 collection of short stories; "Escape to Hell"  (English).


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Muammar Al Gaddafi - Declaration on the Establishment of the Authority of the People


The General People's Congress

The General People's Congress (Mu'tammar al-sha'ab al'âmm) (Arabic: مؤتمر الشعب العام الليبي) consists out of circa 2700 representatives of the Basis People's Congresses.
The GPC is the legislative forum that interacts with the General People's Committee, whose members are secretaries of Libyan ministries. It is composed of the secretariats of some 600 local "basic popular Congresses."
The GPC secretariat and the cabinet secretaries are appointed by the GPC secretary general and confirmed by the annual GPC congress.

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Western Media Propaganda 2012

Saturday July 7, 2012 - Jubilant Libyans marked a-major step toward democracy after decades of erratic one man rule..

Original picture title! > Source <

Voters had the choice to take part in a farce of "Election" by choosing a 200-seat "parliament" that will be tasked with forming a new government. It was the first time Libyans have voted for a parliament since 1964...five years before Gadhafi's 1st September Revolution 1969!


Declaration on the Establishment of the Authority of the People

[Adopted on March 2nd, 1977]

The Libyan Arab people assembled in the General Conference of the People's Congresses, the People's Committees, and the Professional Unions;

Having reviewed the recommendations of the People's Congresses, the Constitutional Declaration of 11 Dec 1969, and the resolutions and recommendations of the General People's Congress which met during the period 5 to 18 Jan 1975;

Believing in the establishment of the direct democratic system heralded by the Great September Revolution and regarding it as the absolute and decisive solution to the problem of democracy;
Embodying the pioneer experiment of the popular rule on the soil of the Great September Revolution which established the authority of the People, who alone should have the authority;
Declare their adherence to freedom and willingness to defend it on the Libyan land and on any other land in the world;

Declare their preparedness to protect the persecuted freedom-seekers;

Declare their adherence to socialism as a means of achieving People's ownership;

Declare their commitment to spiritual values to safeguard morals and human behavior;

Support the march of the Revolution towards complete popular authority and consolidation of the People's Society where only the people control leadership, authority, wealth, and arms to realize the Society of Freedom;

Declare their total commitment to blocking the way in face of all forms of traditional instruments of government, be they individual, family, tribe, sect, class, representative, party, or group of parties;

Declare their readiness to crush forever any undemocratic attempt;

The Libyan Arab People, having regained, through the Revolution, total control over their affairs, and controlling their present and future potentialities with the help of Allah and adherence to His Holy Book as the everlasting source for guidance and as the ordinance of society;

Issue this declaration proclaiming the establishment of the People's authority and announcing to the peoples of the earth the emergence of the era of the masses.


Article 1 [Name]
The official name of Libya will be 'The Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya'.

Article 2 [Religion]
The Holy Koran is the Constitution of the Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya.

Article 3 [Congresses, Committees, Unions]

(1) The People's direct democracy is the basis of the political system in the Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, where the authority is in the hands of the People alone. The People exercise their authority through the People's Congresses, the People's Committees, and the Professional Unions. The regulations of the congresses, committees, and professional unions as well as the dates of their meetings are defined by law.

(2) The authority of the People is comprised of the following:

1. People's Congresses;

2. People's Committees;
3. Professional Unions; and
4. General People's Congress.

(3) People's Congresses:

1. The Libyan People is divided into basic People's Congresses. 2. All citizens register themselves as members of the Basic People's Congress in their area. 3. Every basic People's Congress chooses among its members a committee to lead the Congress.

(4) The masses of the People's Congresses choose People's Committees to administer all the services. These Committees are responsible to the People's Congresses.

(5) Members of each profession form their own union to defend their professional rights.

(6) The General People's Congress is the national conference of the People's Committees and Professional Unions. The General People's Congress shall have a General Secretariat to execute the general policy of the State as defined by the People's Congresses. 

The General Secretariat prepares the sessions of the General People's Congress and draws up an agenda of the General People's Congress, executing its resolutions and recommendations. The General Secretariat consists of a Secretary General and a number of secretaries; each shall supervise one of the sectors of activities in the State.

Article 4 [Chairman]

The General People's Congress chooses a chairman to preside over its sessions, to sign the laws by order of the Congress, and to accept the credentials of the representatives of foreign countries.

Article 5 [Absence]

In the case of absence of the Chairman of the General People's Congress or if something hinders him from performing his duties, the Secretary General will temporarily replace him.

Article 6 [Election]

(1) The General People's Congress chooses the Secretary General and the Secretaries, dismisses them, and accepts their resignations.

(2) The Secretary General and the Secretaries are jointly responsible to the General People's Congress while every secretary is responsible for the sector he supervises.

Article 7 [Budget]

The General Budget of the State is issued by a law and the General People's Congress endorses the balance sheet of the State.

Article 8 [Departments, Employees]

A Law regulates the establishment of public departments and appointments and dismissals of Government employees.

Article 9 [Defence]

Defending the Country is the responsibility of every citizen. Through general military training, the People shall be trained and armed. Law regulates the method for preparing military cadres and the general military training.

Article 10 [Terms]

The terms 'Council of Minister', 'Prime Minister', and 'Minister' are to be replaced, wherever mentioned, by the terms 'General Secretariat of the General People's Congress', 'Secretary General', and 'The Secretary'.

The failed actor and failed President Reagan addressing a press conference in November 1985 was asked what he thought of Muammar Qadhafi. In a rare moment of sanity Reagan replied: "I just think that the man is a zealot. He's pursuing a revolutionary cause that could affect a great many countries." 


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*** COMMUNIQUE NUMBER ONE by Muammar Al Gaddafi (Arabic) English translation read below! 

This Original Radio recording from 1969 is an document of greatest value!

[This communique was read by Mu`ammar al-Qadhafi over Libyan Radio at about 7 AM local time on 1 September 1969;he had drafted it in the radio studio only minutes before.] 

"People of Libya! In response to your own will, fulfilling your most heartfelt wishes, answering your incessant demands for change and regeneration and your longing to strive towards these ends; listening to your incitement to rebel, your armed forces have undertaken the overthrow of the reactionary and corrupt regime, the stench of which has sickened and horrified us all. At a single blow your gallant army has toppled these idols and has destroyed their images. By a single stroke it has lightened the long dark night in which the Turkish domination was followed first by Italian rule, then by this reactionary and decadent regime, which was no more than a hot-bed of extortion, faction, treachery and treason. 

"From this day forward, Libya is a free, self-governing republic. She will adopt the name of The Libyan Arab Republic and will, by the grace of God, begin her task. She will advance on the road to freedom, the path of unity and social justice, guaranteeing equality to all her citizens and throwing wide in front of them the gates of honest employment, where injustice and exploitation will be banished, where no one will count himself master or servant, and where all will be free, brothers within a society in which, with God's help, prosperity and equality will be seen to rule us all. 

"Give us your hands. Open up your hearts to us. Forget past misfortunes, and, as one people, prepare to face the enemies of Islam, the enemies of humanity, those who have burned our sanctuaries and mocked at our honour. Thus shall we re-build our glory, we shall resurrect our heritage, we shall avenge our wounded dignity, and restore the rights which have been wrested from us. 

"You who have witnessed the sacred struggle of our hero, Omar al- Mukhtar, for Libya, Arabism and Islam ... You who have fought at the side of Ahmed al-Sherif for a true ideal; you, sons of the desert and of our ancient cities, of our green country side, and of our lovely villages, -- onwards! For we have work to do! And the hour is come! 

"On this occasion I have pleasure in assuring all our foreign friends that they need have no fears either for their property or for their safety; they are under the protection of our armed forces. And I would add, moreover, that our enterprise is in no sense directed against any state whatever, nor against international agreements or recognised international law. This is a purely internal affair concerning Libya and her problems alone. 

"Forward, then, and may peace be with you." 


Muammar Al Gaddafi - Declaration on the Establishment of the Authority of the People

September One

On September 1st, 1969 the months of planning and the years of dedication and discipline came to fruition. With one determined blow from the Free Unionist Officers the reactionary regime of King Idris collapsed and a new day dawned in the history of Libya, the Arab Nation and of the world's struggling peoples. 

Not a military coup d'etat it was the beginning of a revolution the ramifications of which were to reach every part of the globe and touch the lives of all peoples.

It was the beginning of a revolution which answered the inner call of humanity and was inspired and led by Muammar Qadhafi. Shortly before his death the father of Arab nationalism, Gamal Abdul Nasser, while speaking at a rally at Benghazi noted the world historic role that Muammar Qadhafi would play.

The great Egyptian leader declared: "I am leaving you, I say to you: My brother Muammar Qadhafi is the representative of Arab nationalism, of the Arab revolution and Arab unity. My dear brothers, may God watch over you for the well-being of the Arab people. May you go from victory to victory, for your victories are the victories of the Arab people."

The revolution which began on September 1st 1969 was unlike previous coups and so-called revolutions, it had as its aim not the glorification of another ruling clique or exploiting class but the victory of the dreams and hopes of the masses for final emancipation. 

On September 1st, 1969 a revolution dawned under the leadership of Muammar Qadhafi which answered the cry of the people and responded to the examples of the Prophets and Apostles of God.

Today, many years after the formation of the first revolutionary committee, the organisation of the Free Unionist Officers and 1st of September 1969, Muammar Qadhafi still holds to these sublime values and lives them as the Leader of the World Revolution.

In the words of Vanity Fair journalist T.D. Allman:

"If Kirkegaard was right, and purity of heart is to will one thing and one thing only, then Qadhafi was the purest-hearted military conspirator ever to seize control of a nation. He did not drink or smoke, there are no tales of youthful passion; he appeared to have no personal life at all."

This purity of heart, single-mindedness, courage, dedication and self-determination are the cherished aspects of a revolutionary life and they can be seen in abundance in the life of the Leader Muammar Qadhafi. 

These noble qualities enabled Col. Qadhafi, with profound insight, to develop the principles of the Third Universal Theory and apply them in the Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya. Since the Bolshevik uprising in Russia the world had been locked in a struggle between the forces of Marxist communism and liberal capitalism.

Revolutionaries who rejected both of these ideologies could find no leadership or coherent worldview which articulated their positions and was responsive to the real needs of the masses. This was only the case until the publication of The Green Book.

Muammar Qadhafi has commented that:

"It is not like writing an ordinary book. It was simply an attempt to explain the dialectic which exists between Marxism and capitalism. The world has reached a political and economic impasse, and humanity simply cannot accept this impasse and accept to die. There must be a way out. That way out is this new theory". ('Heart to Heart With Qadhafi', New Africa, Feb. 1983.)

Original Radio Broadcast 1969, Sep 1st


and as

TEXT translation (Engl.)

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