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In addition to the Green Book, Muammar Al Gaddafi is the author of a 1996 collection of short stories; "Escape to Hell" (English).
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OVERVIEW OF THE AMERICAN-BRITISH CAMPAIGN AGAINST LIBYA: BACKGROUND
published in 2004 by World Islamic
CAMPAIGN AGAINST LIBYA: Historical Background
In order to clarify the background of the crisis, we must go back to forgotten files on the American-Libyan conflict in particular, and the conflict of America with the countries of the Arab Maghreb in general. In May, 1784, the U.S. Congress set up an ad hoc committee composed of Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, and Thomas Jefferson, (who later became U.S. Presidents), to negotiate an agreement with the North African countries. In 1786, the Committee succeeded in concluding an agreement with Morocco by virtue of which the United States would pay several thousands of dollars as dues to that country for the protection of American commercial ships against pirates. However, the Committee failed to conclude similar agreements with Algeria and Libya. Adams proposed to increase the dues to be paid to Algeria and Libya, but Jefferson suggested that, instead, such funds be disbursed for the setting up of a military force to protect American ships.
In January, 1791, the Committee of the Congress which dealt with trade problems in the Mediterranean, approved the proposal of Jefferson, who was then Secretary of State, to constitute a naval armed force. In March ,1794, the U.S. Congress authorized the American Government to build six military ships to be used against Libya and Algeria. This was the first American fleet, which still exists in the Mediterranean under the name "the Sixth Fleet".
On the 4th of November, 1796, an agreement was concluded between the United States and Libya by virtue of which the United States would pay Libya $56 thousand. In August, 1797, another agreement was concluded with Tunisia for US $107 thousand. When the naval units were constructed, however, the United States reneged on the agreements and the North African countries expressed immediate objections.
In 1801, the United States declared war against Libya, its first declaration of war after independence from Great Britain. On the basis of this declaration of war, the United States sent four of its military ships to the Mediterranean under the command of Commander Richard Dahl, the first Commander of the First American Fleet in the Mediterranean. The failure of his attack on Tripoli was the first American military defeat in the Mediterranean and compelled Dahl to retreat to Gibraltar. He was replaced by Commander Richard Morris who besieged Tripoli in June, 1802. However the Algerian and Moroccan naval forces sailed against him and compelled him to retreat. He renewed his siege in May, 1803, but had to retreat again in September of the same year. His successors, Commanders Edward Brill and Samuel Baron also failed to secure a victory. Despite this defeat and the failure of the invasion of Libya it is ironic that this military operation is now considered a glorious victory of the United States' Navy. To this day, the anthem of the American Naval forces chants of their victories: "...from the halls of Montezuma to the walls of Tripoli..."
This anthem clearly represents an unbroken link between what occurred two centuries ago and what is taking place today. Libya still remains in the mind of American soldiers a hateful enemy which must be vanquished and destroyed. The American and Western attitude toward the Arab and Muslim peoples remains one of disdain and scorn that easily escalates to racial discrimination and outright hostility.
The new Western imperialist campaign thus has a clear historical basis reaching back over two hundred years, but the campaign had been particularly expected over the past two decades. In September 1969, The Al-Fateh revolution launched its revolutionary achievements by dismantling British and American military bases in Libya. The Revolution eradicated the cancerous Western ascendancy over the Libyan society, toppled the despotic monarchy, lent support to national liberation movements in all Islamic and Third World countries, recovered national resources from foreign exploitation and hegemony, and devoted such resources to securing autonomous development and the advancement of progress. In the wake of this, there was immediate expectation of American imperialist retaliation.
This American retaliation against Libya gained full force in the early 80s, with the beginning of the "Reagan era" which revived the policy of direct interference and the role of the U.S. as World policeman which had prevailed in the 5Os and 60s, and subsided only after the infamous defeat in Vietnam
In this period there are important historical political landmarks that are noteworthy:
The report stated that since the evacuation of the American forces from the Wheelis base on the 11th of June, 1970, American control over Libyan political decisions had ceased to exist. The report suggested that measures be taken to restore American influence in order to safeguard the interests of the United States and the interests of its allies in the region and elsewhere in Africa and Latin America.
The relevant American departments persistently tried to goad Colonel Qaddafi into a reckless external action or into concocting a terrorist act to enable his enemies to seize power, or to give one of Libya's neighbours "Algeria or Egypt for example" justification to retaliate forcefully against Libya. The paper affirms that this plan was submitted to the external Relations Committee of the Congress and that both George Schultz, the Secretary of State, and William Casey, the CIA Director, had stated that they were seeking the approval of Congress. The real objective, according to the paper, was to "impose changes that could be sustained in Libyan policies."
The changes that could be sustained were attempted through the CIA primarily by impairing the relations of Libya with Arab countries at first and later, with friendly countries. As a first step, all Libyan initiations to create a union with the Arab Mashrek or Maghreb were aborted. Libyan-Egyptian relations were disrupted to the extent of an aggression by Sadat against the Jamahiriya in 1977. This was followed by a plot to strike at the relations of Libya with the Sudan and then Algeria. Even the Understanding Agreement of Libya with France regarding Chad signed on September 17, 1984, was impeded by the United States who undermined it shortly after the meeting of Qaddafi with Francois Mitterrand. When all such manoeuvres failed to impose "sustained changes," terrorist units were trained in the Sudan by the ClA. These units arrived in Tripoli but failed to achieve their purpose and their paymasters and provokers were uncovered. Assassination then became the new tool. There was an attempt to assassinate Moammar Qaddafi in 1984, but the conspirators were apprehended and they revealed the role played by the CIA in the attempt.
The major American attempt to stifle Al-Fateh revolution was that of 1986, namely the military aggression waged by hundreds of planes against Tripoli, Benghazi and the residence of the Leader of the Revolution, Moammar Qaddafi. Residential areas were bombed in a deluded attempt to terrorize Libyan citizens and goad them into ridding themselves of their revolutionary leadership.
The argument of the American Administration for this blatant aggression was that Libya was responsible for a terrorist act against a Berlin night-club which killed one American and wounded others. Washington persisted in its claim that Libya was responsible for the Berlin incident and provided its European allies with what it alleged to be conclusive proof. Based on this, the United States started a far-reaching campaign to mobilize Western and American public opinion and set its allies against Libya.
After the collapse of East Germany and the seizure of the files of German intelligence, it was revealed that the blowing up of the night-club was planned by the East German Intelligence Service in cooperation with the German Organization of the Red Brigade. It was reaffirmed by Herr Wolf, the head of the Intelligence Service, when he was apprehended and questioned by (West) German and American intelligence. This information, which would have exonerated Libya, was kept secret, not only because America wished to protect its "credibility", but also because it wished to persist in its schemes against Libya.
America, ultimately, did succeed in its attempts at portraying Libya as the leader of the forces hostile to the West and a dangerous supporter of liberation movements in the Third World. It imposed collective political and economic sanctions on Libya and managed to rally the support of some States for its military aggression, including Britain, Spain, France, and Italy.
In 1989, when George Bush became President after Ronald Reagan, the Libyan diplomacy earnestly sought to open a new page of relations between Washington and Tripoli, on the basis of a principle of balanced relations between states, and laying the blame for the aggression against Libya on President Reagan and his Administration alone. But this Libyan initiative was repulsed by Washington and its European allies, and the accusations and plots against the Libya continued. It became clear that the campaign against Libya was not the result of the will of particular leaders but was firmly entrenched in the world view of the imperialist Western nations.
In 1990, the campaign of these nations against Libya took a new turn, in the form of allegations of the existence of a chemical arms factory at the village of Al-Rabita. They persisted in their allegations, although the Libyan authorities and the European firms which had set up the factory firmly stated that it was a pharmaceutical factory for chemical products.
The Libyan diplomacy succeeded in aborting this new campaign by inviting Arab and foreign delegations, composed of journalists, politicians, and members of parliament to visit the factory and verify its equipment and production. These delegations were headed by President Hosni Mubarack of Egypt. Each and every visitor unequivocally stated that the American allegations were unfounded. Yet, early in 1991, an unknown arsonist set fire to the factory. The arson allowed the Western nations to stick to their accusations and claim that the fire was an attempt to cover up the truth.
During the incident of the Rabita factory, the alleged purchase by Libya of 25 000 tons of Semtex from Czechoslovakia was raised. This material is known to be used for lethal explosives and plastic bombs. The new Czechoslovakian officials said that Libya had bought 2 500 Kg (2.5 tons) of Semtex, but in the pursuance of its slanderous plan, the United States enhanced that figure to 25 000 tons to prove that Libya had bought an astronomical quantity beyond its real needs and that it must, therefore have links to terrorist organizations throughout the world.
In October, 1990, in the German magazine "der Spiegel", the Leader, Moammar Qaddafi related his side of the story. He said that he had called the new Czechoslovakian President, Vlatislav Havel, and asked him to clarify the situation and deny the lies disseminated by America. Havel replied that he had issued an official denial without being asked to do so, but the denial had not been published. He then issued another denial, but the Western media did not even refer to it.
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